By: Betty J. Dong PharmD, FASHP, FCCP
Self-completed • Quicker and cheaper in booklet format discount levitra 10 mg with visa impotence from priapism surgery, as • Research team may be unaware that questionnaire many can be mailed or distributed at the respondent has misunderstood a same time discount 10 mg levitra visa long term erectile dysfunction treatment. We will look briefly at some of these rules discount levitra 20mg on-line impotence natural treatments, but if you are involved in questionnaire design, you may also wish to look at specialist references on the topic (for example, Bradburn et al. Question type: open and closed questions One of the principal distinctions in question type is the extent to which these are open or closed. A closed question is one in which we specify in advance all of the ‘allowable’ answers to which the respondents’ comments have to conform. This is done to ensure consistency in the range of answers that are given, and for ease of analysis, as each response can be given a predetermined code number. This rigid channelling of answers into predetermined categories may be convenient for coding and data handling, but it does not encourage respondents to tell us much of interest, and by the same token provides very little to go on if we want to understand more about the real reasons for their response. If we wish to capture more of this information content of the response, we can ask respondents to answer in their own words. This is called an open question, and here is the same example expressed in an open way: Please explain in the space below, why you are unemployed. Note also that questions can lie anywhere on a spectrum from fully closed to fully open, and the two approaches can be combined: for instance, we could add to the closed question example (above) a additional line such as ‘Please write in the space below any further information about the reason(s) why you are not employed. In general, though, it is important to make the questionnaire as short as possible, so avoid including anything that is not really needed. As a rough guide, an interview should not exceed 20–30 minutes (but longer interviews are certainly possible and not uncommon), and a self-completion questionnaire should not exceed about 10–12 pages. The acceptability of the questionnaire length should be assessed as part of pretesting and piloting, which are described in more detail in Section 4. General layout This is most critical for self-completion questionnaires, although it is also important that an interview schedule be well laid out for the interviewer to follow. Ordering of questions This will to a great extent be determined by the range of subject matter under study. However, there are some useful guidelines on question order: • It is wise to avoid placing the most sensitive questions in the early part of a questionnaire. Phrasing and structure of questions the way questions are phrased and structured is critical, especially when dealing with sensitive material. Suppose we wish to ask people how much alcohol they drink, and are especially interested in people who drink heavily. Since this is medically and (to some extent) socially disapproved of, it is helpful to phrase the question in such a way that the respondent senses that the study is not a part of this disapproval. In the following example (for spirits; similar questions would be given for other types of alcoholic drink), the categories of consumption have been designed to cover the full range of consumption from none to extremely heavy, in such a way that a relatively heavy drinker does not appear to be giving the most extreme response (the very heaviest drinkers would, but that is unavoidable). Thus, since the recommended limit for all alcohol consumption is 3–4 units a day for men and 2–3 for women (a unit is 8 g of alcohol), moderate and heavy drinkers (say, males drinking 5–6 or 7–9 units per day) are still in the upper-middle categories of response, and not at the extreme: On average, how many units of spirits do you drink each day (one unit is equivalent to a single measure of whisky, gin, etc. Whatever the subject matter, sensitive or mundane, it is vital to avoid ambiguities in the wording which can confuse, annoy, convey different things to different people, and so on. These days, more and more people are turning to alternative medicine such as homoeopathy. A skip question is used when we want to direct respondents past questions which are not relevant to them. In the example of alcohol consumption, it is pointless to expect lifelong non-drinkers to plough through detailed questions on their spirit, beer and wine-drinking histories. So, having established that they are lifelong non-drinkers, it is necessary to design the questionnaire in such a way as to direct them to the next section without anything being missed. This requires clear layout, numbered questions, and simple, clear instructions about which question to go to. Arrows and boxing off the parts to be skipped can also be useful, although complicated, fussy layout should be avoided. While it is important not to cut corners in the development of a measurement instrument, there is no point reinventing perfectly good ones. Not satisfactory Satisfactory Prepare questionnaire in the form of the final version. Preparing a questionnaire is a process requiring research, development and testing. If other languages are needed, ensure that colloquial terms are known, and have the questionnaire back-translated (by a third party) to ensure meaning has not been changed.
Generally discount 20 mg levitra fast delivery erectile dysfunction even with cialis, the valve leaflets are diffusely of the left side of the heart are involved much more frequently thickened by fibrous tissue and/or calcific deposits buy discount levitra 10 mg on line erectile dysfunction in diabetes pdf, than those of the right side of the heart buy levitra 10mg visa erectile dysfunction japan. There are fibrous affected most often, followed in descending frequency, by adhesions of mitral commissures and fusion and the aortic valve, and combined mitral and aortic valves. In less extensive valvular deformities may be of 2 types: stenosis and involvement, the bases of the leaflets of mitral valve are insufficiency: mobile while the free margins have puckered and Stenosis is the term used for failure of a valve to open thickened tissue with narrowed orifice; this is called as completely during diastole resulting in obstruction to the ‘purse-string puckering’. Infective endocarditis (page 445) atrial pressure from the normal of 12 mmHg to about 25 3. Non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis (page 444) mmHg leading to dilatation of the left atrium. Libman-Sacks endocarditis (page 444) left atrial pressure, in turn, raises pressure in the pulmonary 5. Syphilitic valvulitis (page 401) veins and capillaries, reducing the pulmonary function and 6. Calcific aortic valve stenosis causing exertional dyspnoea which is the chief symptom of 7. Normal mitral valve (A) contrasted with mitral stenosis (B) and mitral insufficiency (C). Normal-sized or atrophic left ventricle due to reduced as well as pressure since the left ventricle cannot empty inflow of blood. As a consequence of left atrial hypertension, backward transmission of elevated left artial pressure which pulmonary hypertension occurs resulting in pulmonary causes: oedema and right heart failure. In symptomatic cases of i) chronic passive congestion of the lungs; mitral insufficiency, the major symptoms are related to ii) hypertrophy and dilatation of the right ventricle; and decreased cardiac output (e. Features of pulmonary hypertension such as: insufficiency occurs more often in men (75%). Subsequently, i) chronic passive congestion of the lungs; mitral insufficiency is associated with some degree of mitral ii) hypertrophy and dilatation of the right ventricle; and stenosis. About 80% patients of valve syndrome), rupture of a leaflet or of the chordae symptomatic aortic stenosis are males. A few other conditions non-calcific and calcific type, the latter being more common. Calcific aortic stenosis is more rigidity, deformity and retraction of the valve leaflets and common type. These fusion of commissures as well as shortening and fusion include healing by scarring followed by calcification of aortic of chordae tendineae. The aortic cusps show in the aged, there is irregular, stony-hard, bead-like characteristic fibrous thickening and calcific nodularity thickening in the region of mitral annulus without any of the closing edges. Normal aortic valve (A) contrasted with aortic stenosis (B) and aortic insufficiency (C). The lesions are characteristically located 451 valve orifice is reduced to 1 cm2 from its normal 3 cm2. The major effect carcinoid tumour with hepatic metastasis, there is increased of aortic stenosis is obstruction to the outflow resulting in blood level of serotonin secreted by the tumour. Later, when increased concentration of serotonin reaches the right side cardiac failure supervenes, there is dilatation as well as of the heart and causes the lesions but serotonin is inactivated hypertrophy of the left ventricle (eccentric hypertrophy). Exertional bradykinin may play contributory role in carcinoid heart dyspnoea results from elevation of pulmonary capillary disease. Angina pectoris usually results from elevation of in experimental animals has not succeeded in producing pulmonary capillary pressure and usually develops due to cardiac lesions; hence the exact pathogenesis of carcinoid increased demand of hypertrophied myocardial mass. Similar plaques may occur About three-fourth of all patients with aortic insufficiency on the intima of the great veins, the coronary sinus and are males with some having family history of Marfan’s the great arteries. Other causes include syphilitic leaflets of the valves of the outflow tracts of the right heart valvulitis, infective endocarditis, congenital subaortic result mainly in pulmonary stenosis and tricuspid stenosis (congenitally bicuspid aortic valve), myxomatous regurgitation, and to a lesser extent, pulmonary regurgitation degeneration of aortic valve (floppy valve syndrome), and tricuspid stenosis. There Myxomatous or mucoid degeneration of the valves of the is generally distension and distortion of the ring heart is a peculiar condition occurring in young patients. The condition is also known by other increase of the left ventricular end-diastolic volume. This synonyms like ‘floppy valve syndrome’ or ‘mitral valve leads to hypertrophy and dilatation of the left ventricle prolapse’. Failure of the left ventricle some cases it may be genetically determined collagen increases the pressure in the left atrium and eventually disorder.
Infectious Suggested by: very severe throat pain with mononucleosis enlarged tonsils covered with grey mucoid flm cheap levitra 10 mg with visa erectile dysfunction caused by lack of sleep. Candidiasis Suggested by: painful dysphagia purchase 10mg levitra with mastercard erectile dysfunction protocol free, white plaque buy 20mg levitra visa impotence effect on relationship, history of buccal or of immunosuppression/diabetes/recent antibiotics. Also with Herpes zoster infection, herpes simplex infection, local oropharyngeal herpangina, aphthous ulceration, etc. Parotid duct Suggested by: intermittent infection or no discharge obstruction from duct. Parotid Suggested by: no obvious features of alterative non-malignant tumour or infective condition. Mumps Suggested by: acute painful swelling of whole gland(s), contact parotitis with other cases. Confrmed by: bilateral swelling or associated pancreatitis or orchitis (rising mumps viral titre). Non Suggested by: unilateral swelling, oral sepsis or poor general suppurative condition, fever. Mumps sialitis Suggested by: acute painful swelling of whole gland(s), contact with others cases. Non Suggested by: unilateral swelling, oral sepsis, or poor general suppurative condition. Salivary duct Suggested by: intermittent infection or no discharge obstruction from duct. Salivary Suggested by: dry cough, enlarged lacrimal glands, and sarcoidosis erythema nodosum. Submandibular Suggested by: tender, solid, nodular swelling between rami of lymph node mandible, especially <20y of age. Submandibular Suggested by: non-tender, solid nodular swelling between lymph node rami of mandible, especially age >20y. Ranula Suggested by: transilluminable cyst lateral to midline, with domed, bluish discoloration in foor of mouth lateral to frenulum. Thyroglossal Suggested by: fuctuant, cystic lump in midline or just to cyst the left. The following are preliminary diagnoses (see also E Bilateral neck mass—moving with swallow ing but not with tongue protrusion, p. Thyrotoxic Suggested by: sweating, fne tremor, tachycardia, weight goitre loss, lid lag. Hypothyroid Suggested by: cold intolerance, tiredness, constipation, goitre bradycardia. Euthyroid Suggested by: absence of sweating, fne tremor, weight goitre change, cold intolerance, tiredness, lid lag; normal bowel habit, normal pulse rate. Graves’ Suggested by: clinical thyrotoxicosis, exophthalmos, pretibial disease myxoedema. Hashimoto’s Suggested by: clinically euthyroid or hypothyroid (or rarely thyroiditis transient thyrotoxicosis). Thyroid Suggested by: presentation in childhood, clinically hypothyroid or enzyme euthyroid. Autonomous toxic Suggested by: single nodule and ‘clinically thyroid nodule thyrotoxic’: weight loss, frequent bowel movement, tachycardia, sweats, tremor. Branchial Suggested by: fuctuant swelling at anterior border of cyst sternomastoid muscle, <20y of age. Cystic Suggested by: fuctuant swelling that transilluminates well, <20y hygroma of age. Pharyngeal Suggested by: intermittent, fuctuant swelling (usually on left) and pouch dysphagia. Carotid body Suggested by: mobile, arising from carotid bifurcation (upper third tumour of sternomastoid), soft, and gently pulsatile. Hodgkin’s or Suggested by: non-tender, solid nodular swelling between rami of non mandible, especially >20y of age ± fever, weight loss. Cystic hygroma Suggested by: fuctuant swelling that transilluminates well, <20y of age.
Reference Range: Supplied with report Urine is the preferred specimen for toxicity and occupational monitoring levitra 20 mg mastercard erectile dysfunction yoga exercises. Avoid seafood 5 days prior to collection to exclude non–toxic organo arsenic compounds levitra 10 mg low price erectile dysfunction 5-htp. Arterial blood gases Specimen: 3 mL arterial blood in heparinised syringe transported on ice Sample should be analysed within 15 minutes (Hospital in-patients) discount 20mg levitra cost of erectile dysfunction injections. Some of the diagnoses to be considered include: Septic arthritis – immediate joint aspiration (see Synovial aspirate) will give defnitive diagnosis of septic arthritis and differentiate it from gout. Reiter’s disease, which includes arthritis, conjunctivitis, and urethritis, is an example of a reactive arthritis. A high level is more likely to be signifcant and sustained levels may indicate persisting infection. Aspirin Specimen: Plasma – Lithium heparin Reference Ranges: Supplied with report Ativan (Lorazepam) Specimen: Plasma – Lithium heparin Reference Range: Supplied with report Capital Pathology Handbook – Interpretation of Laboratory Tests Autoantibodies Specimen: Serum – Gel A the list of autoantibodies used in the diagnosis of autoimmune disorders continues to lengthen. Specifcities for particular diseases are seldom absolute and low titre autoantibodies can be found in apparently disease–free people. Observation over months or years may show regression, no change or progression to clinical disease. Please specify specifc tests required according to the patients clinical presentation. The quality of the specimen is all–important and will determine whether a pathogen is successfully isolated or whether a false negative culture occurs. Human pathogenic bacteria like a moist environment, close to body temperature (37ºC) with no exposure to toxic chemicals. Conversely they are killed by: • Drying • Sunlight • High Temperature • Antiseptics • Low Temperature • Antibiotics. To provide an optimum environment for swabs, we place them in transport medium which should be stored at room temperature rather than at 4ºC in the fridge. Gonococci, for example, survive 24 hours in transport medium at room temperature but only 2 hours at 4ºC. An exception is urine swabs which should be stored in the fridge to prevent overgrowth of contaminants. Details about collecting swabs from specifc sites will be found under their own alphabetical headings. Specimens from intra–abdominal sites must always be cultured anaerobically as well as aerobically. Bacteroides fragilis produces beta–lactamase which inactivates penicillin and amoxycillin. Amoxycillian–clavulanate, metronidazole and clindamycin are the most effective agents. Antibiotic susceptibility testing should be discussed with a clinical microbiologist. Some species in the genus have recently been reclassifed as Prevotella and Porphyromonas species. Increases occur in chronic myeloid leukaemia and other myeloproliferative disorders including polycythaemia rubra vera. It consists of free light chain fragments (kappa or lambda) derived from IgG and IgA paraproteins found in serum in myeloma and occasionally from an IgM lymphoma–associated paraprotein. Because free light chains are small molecules they pass through the glomerular flter whereas the larger paraprotein molecules are usually retained in serum. In Bence Jones (light chain) myeloma there is no paraprotein in serum but a heavy band of free light chains in urine which means that testing for myeloma must include urine as well as serum electrophoresis. A plot which is rising parallel to the percentile lines but outside the 5th–95th range indicates a healthy pregnancy with incorrect dates. A graph rising more slowly, or fattening, usually indicates the onset of spontaneous abortion or an ectopic pregnancy and is an indication for proceeding with vaginal ultrasound looking for an intrauterine gestational sac. In tumours, there are varying amounts of free beta chains and beta fragments, and different methods measure these to a varying extent. For this reason, when monitoring a tumour, specimens should be sent to the same laboratory. Capital Pathology Handbook – Interpretation of Laboratory Tests Beta–2–microglobulin Specimen: Serum – Gel Urine – random collection.
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