By: Michael J. Kosnett MD, MPH
De Mooij cites the famous renaming of Coca Cola for the Chinese market into kekou kele (tasty and happy) purchase 100mg avanafil overnight delivery prostaglandin injections erectile dysfunction. This operation of localisation was consistent with the use of connoting brand names with positive values and goodwill in the Chinese market (De Mooji 2004: 189) 200mg avanafil visa erectile dysfunction doctors albany ny. When translators localise an advertisement they do it by focussing on the cultural kernels of the target reader; as Munday states in advertising translation: “the unit of translation is not just the text but the culture” (Munday 2004: 209) discount avanafil 200 mg with amex erectile dysfunction drugs over the counter. The professional in charge of advertising translation – which goes far beyond translation – is also called a transcreator. Transcreators recollect the cultural seeds of the target audience and use them in their process of linguistic mediation and cultural remediation. By its own nature, advertising translation draws, and quite 94 predictably so, from many disciplines such as marketing, psychology and reception theories, to name but a few (Adab, Valdes 2004: 164). Being a women’s magazine largely (but not uniquely) dedicated to fashion and beauty, I decided to work on ads concerned with beauty products and perfumes. As a selection criterion, I chose and manually collected only ads whose structure presented a headline, a body, and a “pay off” line. The aim of the research was to find ads for similar or for the same products which could be used, in a wider analysis, to compose respectively comparable and parallel corpora and look at the linguistic choices and communicative styles employed by the three localized versions of the magazine. Both differences and similarities drawn from such a comparison would constitute a useful source for trainee translators. Comparison of the same advert, translated in different languages or localised for a different culture, as it shall be noted, raises very challenging 95 questions as to whether it is still the case that we can talk of translation of a certain promotional text or rather transmutation of the ad: “ legal restraints, norms and socio-cultural differences can combine to produce what might, at first glance, seem a bizarre set of (non) parallel texts” (Katan 2012: 11). Similar product ads allowed some form of comparison but no perfect match was initially found. Furthermore, it was not possible to compare British and Italian anti-aging cream advertisements with the Indian ones because Marie Claire India contained only 1 advertisement of an anti aging product (non-localised, with the image of a Caucasian woman). A wider collection of texts and more extended research would allow us to make general statements about the trends of advertising in the three sister publications and eventually help us to better understand cross-cultural divergences in the advertising language of each edition. A peculiarity which is unique to Marie Claire India is the presence of the same advert repeated twice and even three times in the same issue. In one of the 3 cases, there was a difference in the quality of the page on which the ad was hosted (the shampoo ad was once printed on stiff, glossy paper and the other two occurrences on a normal magazine page). Indian (English) beauty Compared to the British and the Italian editions, Indian advertisements usually comprise a heavy amount of body copy with syntax that is typical of Indian culture and the Indian variety of English. Displaying some typical sociolinguistic features of the Indian variety of English. This tendency towards transparency and disambiguation can be noted in statements like “it removes dirt and dead skin from your face” or “The Secret of dull, lifeless skin is out; Make your dull, dark and lifeless face glow with life with Oxybleach”, sentences which would constitute a doomed campaign in a Western magazine, by inadvertently associating the product with negative attributes before its use. Here are two examples taken from cream adverts (Pond’s White Beauty and Oxy-Facial Kit) purporting to prevent brown spots and the advert of a ‘facial kit’ which is meant to impart oxygen to the skin:  Pond’s White Beauty To what extent will Sun Spots show on your skin by the end of this summer If your score is 5 then moderately spotted is how your skin can look by the end of this summer. This technology enables pure oxygen to be trapped in each product of the kit: cleanser, scrub, cream, gel and pack. The Western eye, accustomed to being exposed to split-second, intrusive, vivid messages – which often lead to a real “sign fatigue” (Gill 2007: 83) – may be impressed by the pace of the Indian ads, which display a milder, non-aggressive tone. By virtue of the principle of textual economy, the same sentence “if your score is 5” could presumably be rendered with “if you score 5” in a British ad and the same holds true for “by the end of this summer” which would be “by the end of the summer”. These are nationally-targeted advertisements and as such the use of these lexical cues are presumably expected by the Indian reader and are pragmatically coherent in the sense that they are “meaningful within the situational and cultural context” (Kramsch 1998: 28) in which they are uttered. Redundancy is also a trait of Indian ads, and it is manifested in the repetition of the nominal group “Oxy Facial” and especially in the sentences “stay spotlessly fair even in the summers without worrying about Sun Spots” and “to give a visibly radiant face that glows with life”, in which the second ‘surplus’ sentence (“without worrying about Sun Spots” and “that glows with life”) expands and reinforces the idea expressed in the first segment. The cream’s brand name (Pond’s White Beauty) introduces one of the main targets of Indian adverts. Among the most frequent lexical occurrences are bleach, pre-bleach cream, bleaching experience, lightening, lighter, skin darkening, brown spots, sunscreen. For those familiar with Indian culture it comes as no surprise that a fair complexion plays such a crucial role. The adjective fair is here intended in the Indian English (Pathak, 99 2005) nuance meaning a not too dark a skin (not fair in the Western sense) and it is a collocation which occurs very often in matrimonial ads: one of the most requested qualities of an eligible bride is a fair complexion and the adjective “fair” occupies the first or second position when listing qualities in marriage ads.
Depending on which of the original author’s intentions the translator wants or is required to buy 50 mg avanafil overnight delivery erectile dysfunction tips keep or delete generic avanafil 200mg with visa erectile dysfunction watermelon, s/he will give more prominence to cheap 200 mg avanafil mastercard erectile dysfunction gnc products certain aspects by adopting specific linguistic strategies. Acceptability relates to “tailoring the translation according to reception in the target culture” (Katan 2009: 82), not only in terms of stylistic conventions but also by taking into account specific culture 70 bound thinking patterns that affect tourists’ perceptions and expectations. Informativity involves favouring “the maximum level of uptake with the minimum cognitive effort” (Katan 2002: 188). This means that the translator will need to adopt a series of strategies to ‘adjust’ information taking into account what outsiders may already know and what type of information would be difficult for them to process. Situationality refers to the context of situation to which given information belongs: information should be delivered in a way that allows readers to identify a specific context, which will serve as a reference frame for retrieving more elements if those present in the text are not sufficient. In this paper the Standard of Intertextuality will be not dealt with, as we may assume that if the previous Standards are satisfied, readers will have all the necessary elements to fully avail themselves of the text and its content. Drawing on the terminology developed by Greimas (1966), we will also frame the fulfilment of these Standards within the three text functions vouloir, savoir, pouvoir. A vouloir tourist text aims to create desire and stimulate interest, a savoir text aims to provide knowledge, a pouvoir text focuses on practical information and is focused on ‘doing’. Assessing the effectiveness of translator intervention through the Seven Standards: an application We will now apply the Seven Standards of Textuality to the English translations of two tourist mini-guidebooks. More specifically, we will try to assess the effectiveness of the strategies used by discussing them in terms of fulfilment or failure. Due to space constraints, the analysis presented in this paper will not cover the whole texts but will rather include a selection of significant examples from each one. Whenever one 71 or more Standards are not satisfied, translation solutions or reformulations are provided. They are all bilingual (Italian and English), with the English translation on the right side of the pages. So far, the Seven Standards model has been tested on two mini-guidebooks: i) “Girapuglia”3, a mini-guidebook proposing food and wine itineraries all over Puglia; ii) “Gallipoli forever”, a pamphlet promoting the sea town of Gallipoli. Despite the title, however, the guidebook promotes not only Puglia gastronomy but also covers cultural sites and activities. Let us start from the front page and focus on the following translation: 2 the mini-guidebooks are available at. In Italian, this expression is basically used to describe people, but in this context it acquires an added meaning, as it is used to highlight the quality of Puglian cuisine. The values underlying the use of this metaphor are probably those of simplicity and authenticity. The literal translation “good like bread” not only sounds very odd in English but also does not convey the intended values. Thus, two Standards are not fulfilled: Acceptability, because the English translation does not stick to the target language stylistic conventions, and Intentionality, because the values intended by the source text author are not conveyed and, as a result, a vouloir feature gets lost here. As mentioned above, the prima-facie English translation of the Italian idiom would be “as good as gold”. As can be noticed in Figure 1, the front page features a Puglia-shaped ciabatta loaf: 73 Figure 1: “Girapuglia” Front Page this picture is symbolically meaningful as it visually recalls the same values of simplicity and authenticity conveyed by the title. This means that in the translation of the title the reference to bread should be maintained. The solution I propose is: “12 wine and food itineraries in a region as good as homemade bread” with the structure “as good as” satisfying Acceptability, as it reminds readers of the more familiar English idiom “as good as gold”, while the adjective “homemade” conveys the values of simplicity and authenticity, as these lie in the natural ingredients which homebaked bread is made of, and keeps the same vouloir feature as the source text, since it stimulates the readers’ desire to visit Puglia and taste local bread. It should be noticed that in the proposed translation “bread” has been preferred to ciabatta as the latter might not be well-known for a lingua franca audience. A further mediating translation could be: 74 “12 wine and food itineraries in a region as good as a homemade ciabatta loaf”. This section indicates the page number of each itinerary, and each itinerary has a corresponding title. The twelve titles corresponding to the twelve promoted itineraries have been translated as follows: Source Text Target text 1.
Constipation is ameliorated by adequate fuid Removing the offending drug is required discount 100mg avanafil with mastercard erectile dysfunction caused by hernia. Some forms of parkinsonism-plus syn can be refrigerated for one week purchase avanafil 200mg on-line erectile dysfunction treatment psychological causes, then should be discarded generic 100mg avanafil with visa erectile dysfunction treatment london. Pyridostigmine by enhancing parasympathetic tone can also aid peristalsis and help in the treatment of constipation. Diffculties at night and daytime sleepiness For patients who have abdominal bloating due to suppression of peristalsis when they are “off”, keeping them “on” with Table 8. Patients often have troubled nights for many reasons (Factor Excessive sebum (seborrhea) probably is due more to et al. The most common problem is diffculty with contributes to seborrheic dermatitis and dandruff. Sweating can Excessive daytime sleepiness cause physical, social, and emotional impairment. Altered sleep–wake cycle Excessive salivation (sialorrhea) is due more to failure to Drug-induced sleep attacks swallow saliva frequently than to overproduction (Bateson 187 8 Nonmotor problems in Parkinson disease sleep maintenance (so-called sleep fragmentation). Rating trazodone, can be very useful, not only to induce and main scales to assess severity of sleep disturbances have been tain sleep, but also to reduce urinary frequency. A good night’s sleep long-acting levodopa preparation last thing at night may reduces the severity of daytime parkinsonism, and many improve nocturnal akinesia (Laihnen et al. However, levodopa given at night may provoke ity the morning after a restful night. Indeed, patients with excessive dreaming and disrupted sleep in some patients marked sleep beneft might not require antiparkinsonian (Nausieda et al. For patients who have no problem falling nian symptoms during the night after the last dose of medi asleep, but awaken in 2–3 hours, the short-acting hypnotic cation has worn off. Nocturnal tremor and akinesia due to zolpidem is useful when taken after the awakening. To correct the problem, it might be necessary develop, with their important contribution to disability, to use a combination of approaches. Treating depression and daytime sleepiness two drugs, repeated once if necessary, may be helpful. To would be helpful, but when fatigue is an independent encourage sleep at night, a hypnotic might be necessary in symptom, no treatment has been found to be satisfactory. Milder hypnotics, such as benzodiazepines, oxidase inhibitor selegiline has been found particularly ben are usually taken without diffculty. Neither has modafnil in a azepines would be preferable, but if the patient awakens too small controlled trial (Lou et al. The decision about which dopamine agonist to place a patient on was discussed in Chapter 6. Once sleep attacks Loss of motivation have occurred, the patient should not drive, except on short trips, or the medication should be changed. A review of the literature symptoms, but usually develops and worsens over the course (Homann et al. Executives with decision-making tasks might fnd reported with all dopaminergic medications, including levo such duties so diffcult that they might not be able to con dopa, the greatest number being associated with prami tinue in their work. Unfortunately, not all reports refer vation are often more troublesome for the spouse than for strictly to sudden attacks without warning; some reports the patient. Lack of motivation, as it becomes more severe, refer to falling asleep from drowsiness, so the interpretation becomes apathy; and when apathy becomes more severe, it is open to uncertainty. Abulia is a severe form of both mental and motor apathy, with not only a loss of initiative and drive but also a general restriction of activities, including the reticence to Sleep and deep brain stimulation of speak. Forty percent did not comparing paroxetine, nortriptyline, and placebo in 52 require treatment. Tranylcy factor is whether the patient has a true disturbance of mood promine, a noncompetitive inhibitor of types A and B (dysphoria), with low spirits, loss of interest, bleak outlook, monoamine oxidase, is an effective antidepressant (Fahn typical depressive sleep disturbance, paranoid ruminations, and Chouinard, 1998), but cannot be give in the presence and sometimes suicidal thoughts.
Strategies for problems involve the use of heuristics buy avanafil 100mg on-line erectile dysfunction herbs, that is buy avanafil 50 mg low cost erectile dysfunction treatment ring, rules of thumb that usually give the correct answer generic avanafil 100mg with amex erectile dysfunction causes tiredness. Analogic reasoning involves the application of solutions to already known problems to new problems with similar characteristics. For example, if you lose the keys to your locked briefcase, you can apply the knowledge to this new problem that sharp-ended implements can be used to open padlocks. Inductive reasoning depends on the use of specifc known instances to draw an inference about unknown instances. Commonly, this is formulated as generalizing from a single instance to all instances or from some members of a category known to have a given property to other instances of that category. Deductive reasoning involves an argument in which if the premises are true, the conclusion cannot be false. This is usually studied by way of syllogism: (a) all Martians are green, (b) my father is a Martian, (c) my father is green. This is the capacity for abstraction, the ability to theorize about the world, and it includes the categorization of objects or events in the world and the clarifcation of the concepts that determine the category or class under investigation. The sequence of thoughts, with the associa tions linking them, forms the framework of this model, which is represented diagrammatically in Figure 9. There are an enormous number of possible associations, but thinking usually proceeds in a defnite direction for various immediate and compelling reasons. This consistent fow of thinking towards its goal is ascribed to the determining tendency (Jaspers). The idea of associations is not intended to imply that one psychological event evokes another by an automatic, unintelligent, non-verbal refex, but that the thought, which may be expressed verbally or not, is a concept that results in the formation of a number of other concepts, one of which is given prominence by operation of the determining tendency. This model is conjectural but has some value in allowing description of the abnormalities of thinking and speech that occur in mental illness. To develop the metaphor, thoughts are capable of acceleration and slowing, of eddies and calms, of precipitous falls, of increased volume of fow, of blockages. This analogy should not be taken too far, as it is without neurophysiological basis, but it is useful for examining certain abnormalities and is based on subjective experience. In this, there is a logical connection between each of two sequential ideas expressed. It is continuously changing because of the effect of frivolous affect and a very high degree of distractibility. The speed of forming such associations, and therefore of the pattern of thought, is grossly accelerated. She said, ‘They thought I was in the pantry at home Peekaboo there’s a magic box. Poor darling Catherine, you know, Catherine the Great, the fre grate, I’m always up the chimney. Markedly different from the manic fight of ideas with pressure of speech and multiple but linked associations is the confusion psychosis described by Fish (1962). In this, thinking is disor dered while mood and psychomotor activity are unimpaired. In the excited form of this, incoher ent pressure of speech is prominent, the context of which is out of keeping with the situation. There may be transient, almost playful, misidentifcations of people; feeting ideas of reference; and auditory hallucinations. In the inhibited state of confusion psychosis, there is poverty of speech, almost mutism. There may also be perplexity, ideas of reference, ideas of signifcance, illusions and hallucinations – auditory, visual or somatic. This is usually a cycloid psychosis in its presentation, and other features of manic-depressive psychosis may be present. The patient is likely to show little initiative and to begin neither planning nor spontaneous activity. When asked a question, he will ponder over it, but as no thought comes to him he makes no response. He has diffculty in making decisions and in concentration; there is loss of clarity of thought and poor registration of those events he needs to remember.
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