By: James Abbruzzese, MD
He woke up in the middle of the night determination of serum urate levels to substantiate with the feeling that his large toe had been set on your preliminary diagnosis discount furosemide 100mg otc blood pressure medication bananas. You tell your patient that he must least 6 times a week cheap 40 mg furosemide overnight delivery arrhythmia in 7 year old, always with three or more strongly consider dietary restriction purchase furosemide 40 mg on line blood pressure medication recreational, particularly of glasses of red wine. Inform him that if his attacks return in spite of changes in lifestyle, you are likely going to institute other drug measures. Histamine eczema, contact dermatitis, food allergies, and reactions is present in human plasma at relatively low concentra- to drugs are all allergic reactions associated with the re- tions (usually less than 0. Histamine re- quantities of histamine are present in urine, with excre- lease is frequently associated with various inﬂammatory tion rates varying from 10 to 40 g per 24 hours. Synthesis and Storage Upon release from its storage sites, histamine exerts ef- fects ranging from mild irritation and itching to ana- Virtually all of the histamine found in individual organs phylactic shock and eventual death. Alternatively, histamine can be re- dine by an action of the enzyme histidine decarboxylase leased from mast cells by a variety of nonexocytotic (Fig. Following synthesis, histamine is either rap- processes, including mast cell lysis, modiﬁcation of mast idly inactivated or stored in the secretory granules of cell membranes, and physical displacement of histamine. Histamine is only one of several potent Release from Storage Sites physiological mediators that are released from mast Histamine can be released from mast cell granules in cells; the other substances can also contribute to the two ways, both of which have pharmacological impor- overall immediate hypersensitivity reaction. Receptor site (Fa,b) Histamine Granules Nucleus (Fc) IgE-sensitized Mast cell IgE mast cell Allergen IgE-sensitized mast cell with allergen bound Isoproterenol, theophylline, epinephrine, cromolyn sodium Degranulation. The attachment of an antigen (allergen) to the sensitized mast cell initiates release of histamine (and other substances) from the mast cell. This degranulation can be prevented by such agents as isoproterenol, theophylline, epinephrine, and cromolyn sodium. H1 antihistamines do not interfere with degranulation but instead prevent actions of histamine at various pharmacological receptors. This enzyme is present in tissues but not in ulation of tissue mast cells and blood basophils as part of blood. E (IgE) antibodies (reaginic antibodies) directed against An alternative pathway of histamine metabolism in- an allergenic substance attach to the outer surface of the volves oxidative deamination by the enzyme diamine cell membrane and initiate a series of biochemical events oxidase (histaminase) to form 5-imidazoleacetic acid. Although allergens are the most frequent and plays a particular role in metabolizing the large initiators of immediate hypersensitivity reactions, certain concentrations of histamine that may be present in drugs, particularly in association with endogenous high- food. An additional metabolite, N-acetyl histamine (a molecular-weight molecules, may also promote the sensi- conjugate of acetic acid and histamine), can be pro- tization process and mast cell degranulation on subse- duced if histamine is ingested orally. Because of its rapid breakdown after oral modulate the antigen-mediated release of histamine administration, histamine produces few systemic effects from sensitized tissues. This feedback inhibition does not appear Physiological Effects of Histamine to occur in lung mast cells. Agonists of 2-adrenoceptors Histamine mediates a diverse group of processes rang- inhibit antigen-induced histamine release from mast ing from vasodilation to gastric acid secretion. It pro- cells, whereas muscarinic and -adrenergic agonists en- duces its effects by binding to and activating receptors hance mast cell degranulation. There are at least four recep- Non–Antigen-Mediated Release of Histamine tor populations, H1,H2, H3, and H4. All four receptor Histamine may be released from mast cells by mecha- subtypes have been cloned and belong to the G pro- nisms that do not require prior sensitization of the im- tein–coupled receptor superfamily. Drugs, high-molecular-weight proteins, ceptors can be distinguished on the basis of their venoms, and other substances that damage or disrupt post–receptor signal transduction mechanisms, tissue cell membranes can induce the release of histamine. Cardiovascular System Drugs, particularly organic bases, may release hista- mine from mast cells by physically displacing the amine A slow intravenous injection of histamine produces from its storage sites. Morphine, codeine, d-tubocu- marked vasodilation of the arterioles, capillaries, and rarine, guanethidine, and radiocontrast media can re- venules. Basic polypeptides, such nitude depends on the concentration of histamine in- as bradykinin, neurotensin, substance P, somatostatin, jected, the degree of baroreceptor reﬂex compensation, polymyxin B, and the anaphylatoxins resulting from and the extent of histamine-induced release of adrenal complement activation, also stimulate histamine release. Vasodilation of cutaneous blood vessels Venoms often contain basic polypeptides as well as the reddens the skin of the face, while a throbbing headache histamine-releasing enzyme phospholipase A. Vasodilation is mediated through both H1- and H2- receptors on vascular smooth muscle. Stimulation of H1- Inactivation of Released Histamine receptors produces a rapid and short-lived response, the inactivation of histamine is achieved both by enzy- whereas stimulation of H2-receptors produces a more matic metabolism of the amine and by transport sustained response that is slower in onset. Stimulation processes that reduce the concentration of the com- of H3-receptors on sympathetic nerve terminals inhibits pound in the region of its receptors. Histamine metabo- the release of norepinephrine and its associated vaso- lism occurs primarily through two pathways (Fig.
A helpful criterion suggested by the American (D) Subjects are included in studies of treatments College of Physicians when considering the ethical that are not available in underserved countries but appropriateness of a particular interaction between are available in the United States cheap furosemide 40mg visa blood pressure numbers for seniors, raising issues of eq- a physician and industry is to: uity and fairness toward disadvantaged populations cheap 100 mg furosemide overnight delivery arteria meningea media. The principle of justice is a relevant considera- quately tion when subjects are selected for clinical research buy 100mg furosemide with amex blood pressure medication glaucoma. Susan Brown, a community-based internist in Little tonomy would be most relevant to the parents’ abil- Town, U. Brown Martin believes risks have been minimized and the to attend a medical consultants’ meeting at the overall study drug is likely to help the participants, Golden Sunset Resort, an elegant resort about an so the study has satisﬁed the principles of nonmalef- hour away from Little Town. The principle of medical Saturday morning presentation by representatives priority is not mentioned in the chapter and per- from Modern, with time over lunch for the medical tains to treating the most medically needy patients consultants to give feedback to the company repre- ﬁrst, which is not at issue here. An ethical issue arises when one includes med- the weekend is unscheduled time for Dr. Brown will be paid $1000 for viding them with the level of care available to oth- her consulting services. Brown should: damaging to a study, do not pose ethical problems (A) Decide whether she thinks she would be bi- in medically underserved populations not encoun- ased toward Modern products by the company’s tered elsewhere. Effective study design can over- generosity; if she believes she can remain objective, come problems with generalizing from one popula- it is acceptable to attend. Subjects everywhere should be 8 Contemporary Bioethical Issues in Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Research 79 provided with information at a level the subject can tant for company employees but bears little rele- comprehend and asked to give informed consent. Finally, although patient are available in their own country, only those that care may not be directly affected by an action, the are available only elsewhere. A conﬂict of interest occurs when an individ- impression that the physician is under undue inﬂu- ual’s personal interests conﬂict with ofﬁcial respon- ence of the pharmaceutical company and thereby sibilities, such as those required by one’s profession. Gifts to physicians from indus- pertain to conﬂicts between researchers or the re- try. Source of funding and outcome of clinical the educational nature of the meeting is dubious. Even if we consider it a consultancy rather than an Emanuel E, Wendler D, and Grady C. Introduction to Clinical Ethics (2nd not mean that her objectivity cannot be compro- ed. Drug promotion and scientiﬁc exchanges: products from other companies as carefully because the role of the clinical investigator. Some recent developments in the interna- amount this company will spend on her expenses tional guidelines on the ethics of research involving and honoraria far exceed what is reasonable. Ethical considerations in the conduct of have an arrangement generally known is a quick clinical pharmacokinetic studies. Physicians and the Pharmaceutical Industry: standard for what they would be willing to have Is A Gift Ever Just a Gift? Why do American drug companies spend tion falls within the law does not make it morally more than $12 billion a year pushing drugs? Drew recruits through his small private practice, question at hand while minimizing risks and he will receive $1,000 to help defray the costs of maximizing beneﬁts to subjects. Drew should quarterly blood draws and the additional consider whether subjects will be selected fairly, and paperwork required by the study. Drew’s should consider the quality of the ethical and computer system to enable better patient tracking. Drew could really use the protocol raises ethical issues that have not been ﬁnancial support but wonders what beneﬁts this addressed. Is it simply a me-too or whether the payment offered is commensurate with copycat drug, designed primarily to make money the time, effort, and actual expenditures to enroll for the drug company? Drew ﬁnds the ﬁnancial incentives especially troubling, since it is debatable whether tempting and knows the risk to patients is low. Drew faces many ethical questions in physicians not accept gifts over $100 in value even if deciding whether or not to participate in the drug they offer beneﬁt to patients, so Dr. Drew should trial for hypertension sponsored by the Modern not accept the computer system even if its absence Pharmaceutical Company. Drew feels that the study is valuable, of the role of physician, with the attendant duty to well designed, and meets ethical standards, before protect patients from harm, and recognize that the enrolling any patient Dr. Having whether that patient is doing well on current established the priority of Dr.
In basic research generic furosemide 40mg with amex prehypertension symptoms, the confu- sion often results from description of a singular effect or even multiple effects of chronic stimulant treatment without clearly delimiting the time- frame buy cheap furosemide 40mg on-line heart attack i was made for loving you, dosing schedule buy furosemide 40mg with amex arrhythmia questions, or mutual exclusiveness of competing behavioral effects. Our whole task from a clinical perspective includes (1) delineation of the patterns of behavioral pathology induced both during the active stimulant abuse phase and the phases of withdrawal; (2) description of the sequential profile of underlying structural and functional pathology at each of the clinical phases; and (3) an attempt to elucidate the relationship between (1) and (2). In addition, an understanding of the pharmacological and other parameters sufficient and necessary for inducing components of the stimulant syndrome is clearly needed and can be obtained only from basic laboratory studies. In figure 1 we have outlined phases of stimulant abuse and withdrawal; this pattern does not depict the larger spectrum of patterns seen in stimulant abusers. Instead, we have emphasized what is called a high-dose transition pattern (Gawin and Ellinwood 1988), which leads to the greatest behavioral pathology. In focusing on the high-dose transitional form, the periodic dosing over months to years is deemphasized, as is considerable basic research literature dealing with once or twice-a-day dosing schedules. Typically, individuals are initially exposed to single doses of stimulants for therapeutic (e. Euphoria produced by single doses of stimulants before development of tolerance are proportional to plasma levels (Fischman et al. During the “single bolus” phase, conditioning to euphoriant “rush” of stimulants is especially profound in individuals using a rapid route of administration (e. The single bolus phase is followed by increasing doses and frequency (“dose frequency escalation” phase) mainly secondary to a development of tolerance to euphoriant effect of stimulants. The high-dose transition is defined as a transition phase in which the individual suddenly increases the doses of stimulants or switches to smoking (e. Dose frequency escalation patterns, cocaine and amphetamine stimulant use, in which the individual repeatedly administers high doses of stimulant in an attempt to “chase” the euphoric state against the background of rapidly developing acute tolerance. Each bingeing episode can last from a few hours to days and is usually terminated by extreme physical 325 exhaustion and/or exhaustion of drug supply (Gawin and Ellinwood 1988). It is the high, sustained plasma levels that appear to lead to the greatest pathology in both stimulant abusers and laboratory animals (Ellinwood and Kilbey 1977). Figure 2, B through D, illustrates drug plasma levels during the high-dose transition and bingeing phase. A severe compulsive pattern of repeated cocaine administration is necessary to maintain sustained drug levels during cocaine binges, whereas, because of its longer plasma half-life, amphetamine bingeing is usually characterized by longer intervals between injections. During this compulsive phase, severely addicted individuals report stereotyped patterns of behavior and thiig with near exclusion of other concerns. Possible mechanisms responsible for different phases of high-transition pattern are summarized in figure 3 under abuse dependence. During the high-dose transition, the intense euphoria associated with the rush leads to profound conditioning of associated abuse behaviors; not only are the injection behaviors highly conditioned to the circumstances surrounding the injections, but the behaviors leading up to the procurement of the drug and the preparation prior to injection are also conditioned (Ellinwood 1973). Aspects of Withdrawal the clinical withdrawal period may be considered as a sequence of phases beginning with “crash” and ending with long-term withdrawal that can only be presented descriptively. Consideration for each different phase of withdrawal is critical in understanding and treating the evolving stages of withdrawal. The treatment consideration in the intermediate withdrawal phase is quite different from that in the long-term withdrawal phase (Gawin and Ellinwood 1988). Crash, the initial phase of stimulant withdrawal, immediately follows a bingeing episode. Initially marked depressive dysphoria, anxiety, and agitation are noted, followed by craving for sleep over the next few hours (Ellinwood 1973; Gawin and Ellinwood 1988). Often the individual uses a wide variety of sedatives or anxiolytics, such as alcohol, to initiate a sustained hypersomnia. Notably, addicts report minimal desire for the abused drug during this immediate phase of withdrawal (Gawin and Kleber 1986). As the individual recovers from the crash phase, a period of anhedonia, dysphoria, and decreased mental and physical energy ensues (intermediate withdrawal phase). Emerging from the mood and energy dysfunction, craving or high urge for the stimulant returns, frequently leading to recidivism (Ellinwood 1973).
Exercise led to improved outcomes in patients with the centralization phenomenon as a classification criterion discount 100 mg furosemide fast delivery arteria fibularis. The authors concluded that this form of classification reliably differentiates discogenic from non-discogenic symptoms (Cook et al furosemide 100 mg mastercard blood pressure medication swollen ankles. The aims of mechanical assessment are diagnostic discount 40 mg furosemide amex arteria thyroidea ima, prognostic, therapeutic and prophylactic. Examination by standardized loading strategies will, early in the process of conservative care, eliminate patients whose pathology is unsuitable for mechanical treatment (“red flags”). If, during examination, no position or movement can be found to reduce, centralize or abolish the symptoms, mechanical therapy may be of no value, at least at that stage. If the symptoms are only increased or peripheralized, it is likely that a 22 more advanced pathology exists, such as an extruded disc fragment, fracture or other condition, and mechanical therapy is contraindicated. Centralization and peripheralization phenomena Three clinical phenomena: the centralization phenomenon, the peripheralization phenomenon and the directional preferences, may be commonly observed during the evaluation of subjects with the derangement syndrome (Appendix 1), which has been shown to be the largest (80%) group of the mechanical syndromes (May et al. The centralization phenomenon occurs when distal limb pain emanating from the spine, although not necessarily felt in it, is immediately or eventually abolished in response to the deliberate application of loading strategies. Such loading causes the abolition of peripheral pain that appears to retreat progressively in a proximal direction. As this occurs there may be a simultaneous development or increase in proximal pain (McKenzie and May 2003). The peripheralization phenomenon exists, when pain emanating from the spine, although not necessarily felt in it, spreads distally into, or further down, the limb. In response to repeated movements or a sustained posture, if pain is produced and remains in the limb, spreads distally or increases distally, that particular loading strategy should be avoided (McKenzie and May 2003). The explanation for these phenomena may lie in the connectional model of disc displacement (peripheralization) and replacement (centralization) of annular / nuclear complex, which occur under defined circumstances as a result of movements and positions of the vertebral column (Schnebel et al. Directional preference is closely related to pain centralization, and indicates the direction of force required to centralize the pain (McKenzie and May 2003). The centralization and peripheralization of symptoms occur only in patients suffering from the derangement syndrome. Changes of pain location, pain intensity, and the range of motion are not likely to result from a single movement but can readily be observed during or after one to five sequences of 5 - to 15-movement repetitions (Kopp et al. In certain conditions it may be necessary to repeat one or more movements many times, possibly over a 24-hour period, before centralization or peripheralization becomes apparent and the classification confirmed (Werneke et al. Conversely, the test cannot work if it lacks either reliability or validity (Sackett et al. It is determined by having the same patients, and recording the results in a contingency table (Sackett et al. Reliability is expressed by Cohen’s Kappa, which is the extent to which the observed agreement (discounted for chance) fills the range of possible agreement available (also discounted for chance) (Cohen 1960). Validity refers to the degree to which a study accurately reflects or assesses the specific concept that the researcher is attempting to measure. While reliability is concerned with the accuracy of the actual measuring instrument or procedure, validity is concerned with the study’s success as measuring what the researcher sets out to measure (Sackett et al. Criterion-related validity, expressed by sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, likelihood ratios (+ /-) and diagnostic confidence, measures of how well a diagnostic test actually establishes both the presence and the absence of a condition that it is intended to detect. It is determined by comparing the results of the diagnostic test with those of another test, called the criterion standard, which provides more direct evidence of the presence and absence of the condition. Predictive validity refers to the degree to which the operationalization of the test can predict or correlate with other measures of the same construct that are measured at some time in the future. It is the degree to which a measurement successfully predicts an outcome of interest (Sackett et al. Discriminate validity is the lack of a relationship among measures which theoretically should not be related (Sackett et al. A systematic review on the reliability of McKenzie classification system yielded contradictory results as out of 3 high quality studies, two demonstrated reliability and one did not (May et al.
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